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Adequan Canine is the first product that is proven to help treat the disease as well as the pain of osteoarthritis.

Adequan Canine

Adequan ® Canine (POLYSULFATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN) is the first product that is proven to help treat the disease as well as the pain of osteoarthritis. It actually helps modify the disease cycle and control the symptoms.

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Adequan Canine (POLYSULFATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN) is the first product that is proven to help treat the disease as well as the pain of osteoarthritis. It actually helps modify the disease cycle and control the symptoms. This effective, injectable treatment is available by prescription and administered by your own veterinarian.

Adequan ® Canine (POLYSULFATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN)

FAST ACCESS TO THE JOINTS: Beneficial levels of Adequan are already at work in all major joints within two hours after intramuscular injection, with even greater uptake (up to 73% higher) in joint tissues that are inflamed or diseased. LONG-TERM EFFECTS: Adequan Canine relieves the pain and disability of joint damage, and the relief has been shown to last up to 6 months or longer. BREAKS THE DESTRUCTIVE CYCLE: Adequan binds to damaged cartilage and boosts cartilage metabolism, facilitating repair processes. At the same time, it blocks the action of destructive enzymes that promote joint inflammation, break down the synovial fluid, and attack the cartilage. RENEWS THE JOINT FLUID: Adequan stimulates the synovial membrane to manufacture new synovial fluid to replace the thin, degraded fluid of joint disease. By doing so, Adequan helps lubricate, nourish, and clean the cartilage.

Administration: An initial 8-dose series is recommended: 2 mg/lb intramuscularly twice a week for four weeks. Adequan Canine is packaged in 5mL (100 mg per ml) multidose vial(s)

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Adequan Canine (box of 2 vials): Product Currently Unavailable

Syringes box of 50 (used for IM injections)

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Adequan Information

Description: The active ingredient in Adequan® Canine is polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG). Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan is a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan prepared by extracting glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from bovine tracheal cartilage. GAGs are polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units. The GAG present in PSGAG is principally chondroitin sulfate containing 3 to 4 sulfate esters per disaccharide unit. The molecular weight for PSGAG used in the manufacture of Adequan® is 3,000 to 15,000 daltons. Each mL of Adequan® Canine contains 100 mg of PSGAG, 0.9% v/v benzyl alcohol as a preservative, and water for injection q.s. to 1 mL. Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid added when necessary to adjust pH.

Pharmacology: The specific mechanism of action of Adequan® in canine joints is not known. PSGAG is characterized as a "disease modifying osteoarthritis drug." Experiments conducted in vitro have shown PSGAG to inhibit certain catabolic enzymes which have increased activity in inflamed joints, and to enhance the activity of some anabolic enzymes. For example, PSGAG has been shown to significantly inhibit serine proteinases. Serine proteinases have been demonstrated to play a role in the Interleukin-1 mediated degradation of cartilage proteoglycans and collagen. PSGAG is reported to be an inhibitor of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. PGE2 has been shown to increase the loss of proteoglycan from cartilage. PSGAG has been reported to inhibit some catabolic enzymes such as elastase, stromelysin, metalloproteases, cathepsin B1, and hyaluronidases, which degrade collagen, proteoglycans, and hyaluronic acid in degenerative joint disease. Anabolic effects studied include ability to stimulate the synthesis of protein, collagen, proteoglycans, and hyaluronic acid in various cells and tissues in vitro. Cultured human and rabbit chondrocytes have shown increased synthesis of proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid in the presence of PSGAG. PSGAGs have shown a specific potentiating effect on hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovial membrane cells in vitro.

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of PSGAG following intramuscular injection have been studied in several species, including rats, rabbits, humans, horses and dogs.

Studies in rabbits showed maximum blood concentrations of PSGAG following IM injection were reached between 20 to 40 minutes following injection, and that the drug was distributed to all tissues studied, including articular cartilage, synovial fluid, adrenals, thyroid, peritoneal fluid, lungs, eyes, spinal cord, kidneys, brain, liver, spleen, bone marrow, skin, and heart.

Following intramuscular injection of PSGAG in humans, the drug was found to be bound to serum proteins. PSGAG binds to both albumin and chi- and beta-globulins and the extent of the binding is suggested to be 30 to 40%. Therefore, the drug may be present in both bound and free form in the bloodstream. Because of its relatively low molecular weight, the synovial membrane is not a significant barrier to distribution of PSGAG from the bloodstream to the synovial fluid. Distribution from the synovial fluid to the cartilage takes place by diffusion. In the articular cartilage the drug is deposited into the cartilage matrix.

Serum and synovial fluid distribution curves of PSGAG have been studied in dogs and appear similar to those found in humans and rabbits.

In rabbits, metabolism of PSGAG is reported to take place in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Metabolism may also occur in the kidneys. PSGAG administered intramuscularly and not protein bound or bound to other tissues is excreted primarily via the kidneys, with a small proportion excreted in the feces.

Efficacy: Efficacy of Adequan® Canine was demonstrated in two studies. A laboratory study using radiolabeled PSGAG established distribution of PSGAG into canine serum and synovial fluid following a single intramuscular injection of 2 mg/lb. A clinical field trial was conducted in dogs diagnosed with radiographically-confirmed traumatic and/or degenerative joint disease of 1 or 2 joints. Joints evaluated included hips, stifles, shoulders, hocks and elbows. Fifty-one dogs were randomly assigned to receive either Adequan® Canine at 2 mg/lb of body weight or 0.9% saline. Both treatments were administered by intramuscular injection twice weekly for 4 weeks (8 injections total). Investigators administering treatment and evaluating the dogs were unaware of the treatment assignment. A total of 71 limbs in 51 dogs were evaluated. Of these, 35 limbs in 24 dogs were in the Adequan® Canine treated group. Each lame limb was scored for lameness at a walk, lameness at a trot, pain, range of motion, and functional disability. The scores for the individual parameters were combined to determine a total orthopedic score. At the end of the treatment period, dogs treated with Adequan® Canine showed a statistically significant improvement in range of motion and total orthopedic score over placebo treated control dogs.

Indications and Usage: Adequan® Canine is recommended for intramuscular injection for the control of signs associated with non-infectious degenerative and/or traumatic arthritis of canine synovial joints.



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